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Battery Test Program

Battery Failure Mode

Failure Type Battery Part Factor of Failure Appearance Cause of Problem Wise
Cell Short Special cell Short
  • 1) Not Starting
  • 2) Ability loss of electric equipment
  • 1) Misalignment between plates to separators
  • 2) Lead-tear : Unskilled or rushed activity
  • 3) Plate quality : Partially overpasted & shape cutted plates
  • 4) Separator(Single & folding) quality : Uneven cutted & mis-folding
Disconnection Special cell Disconnection
  • 1) Not Starting
  • 2) Ability loss of electric equipment
  • 1) Disconnected of ICC parts with plates : Unskilled or rushed activity
  • 2) Quality of ICC & bushing : Crack & unfilled parts
  • 3) Welding tip quality : Regularly replace
  • 4) Misalignment : Container punched holes with center of ICC surface
  • 5) Flash in container holes : Replace of male & female parts
Top cover leak
  • Sealing part
  • case, etc
  • 1) Heat sealing failure
  • 2) Damage
1) Electrolyte leakage
  • 1) Not match of temperature & duration to SOP
  • 2) Uneven level of injection parts [Container & cover]
Electrolyte leakage
  • Sealing part
  • case, etc
  • 1) Heat sealing failure
  • 2) Damage
1) Electrolyte leakage
Explosion Exhaust hole
  • 1) Handling negligence
  • 2) Flammable
  • 3) Pole short
1) Battery explosion

Battery Troubles Summarized

A. Lack of Gassing:

Lack of gassing while on charge may indicate an internal short between plates, i.e., the cell discharges internally as fast as it is being charged.

B. Specific Gravity or Voltage:

Specific gravity or voltage of a cell lower than other cells is an indication of excessive internal losses and may result from consistent undercharging.

C. Color:

Color or appearance of plates or sediment different from other cells is addressed below:

  1. Patches of white lead sulfate on either the positive or negative plates: caused by standing idle or undercharging for extended periods
  2. Antimony deposit dark-slate patches on negative plates: caused by charging at too high a rate or an aged cell nearing the end of its service life.
  3. Top layer of sediment white: caused by undercharging.
  4. Lumpy brown sediment: caused by overcharging.
  5. All white sediment no visible layers: caused by overcharging after prolonged low float voltage.
  6. Large flaking on the interplate collector bar: caused by being on float charge for extended periods at insufficient float voltage without equalizing charging being performed.

D. Plate Problems:

If any checks below are excessive, capacity tests must be run to determine if individual cells or the entire battery should be replaced.

  1. Cracks on the edges of the positive plate grids.
  2. Light-colored sulfating spots on edges of plates below cracks mention.
  3. Excessive sediment in the bottom of the case.
  4. “Mossing” or “treeing” on the tops of negative plates.

E. Water:

  1. Cell uses excessive water: caused by excess charging rates, high operating temperatures, or leaking cell.
  2. Cell requires very little water: caused by insufficient charging.

F. Buckling of Plates:

Buckling of positive plates indicates excessive sulfation caused by undercharging or excessive temperature.

G. Failure to Supply Rated Ampere-Hour Loads:

Failure to supply rated ampere-hours indicates discharged condition, excessive sulfation, or loss of active material from positive plates. Cells may be worn out or active material may be gone from positive plates.

Factors that Affect Battery Life